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Chicago-Style Citations: Social & Online Media, Data, Music, and Other Non-Print Materials, 16th ed.: Online &
Social Media

Examples of citations for a variety of non-print materials based on the Notes and Bibliography system of the 16th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style

E-mail, Blogs, and E-books

E-mail

You may cite an email in the text ("In an e-mail message to the author on October 13, 2014, Henning Mankell writes that..."). E-mails are seldom listed in a bibliography. Note that CMOS 16 hyphenates the word "e-mail".

See, CMOS 16, 14.222

Note

49. Henning Mankell, e-mail message to author, October 13, 2014.

Bibliographic
Entry

Not usually done.

 

Blogs

See CMOS 16, 14.246 

Note

57. Andrew Rudalevige, “Reagan and KAL 007,” Monkey Cage (blog), Washington Post, July 18, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2014/07/18/reagan-and-kal-007/.

Bibliographic
Entry

Griffey, Jason. "The Case for Open Hardware in Libraries." Pattern Recognition (blog). May 27, 2014. http://jasongriffey.net/wp/.

E-books

See CMOS 16, 14.166  and 14.167

E-books consulted online...

CMOS 16 says follow the book format, but at the end add a URL or doi (digital object identifier).  For a note, add  section or chapter information in lieu of page numbers .

Note

9. Sree Padma, "Introduction," in Vicissitudes of the Goddess Reconstructions of the Gramadevata in India’s Religious Traditions (New York: Oxford, 2013), doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199325023.001.0001.

Bibliographic
Entry

Padma, Sree. "Introduction." In Vicissitudes of the Goddess Reconstructions of the Gramadevata in India’s Religious Traditions. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199325023.001.0001.

 

E-books downloaded...

Follow book format, but add an edition statement at the end.  For a note include chapter or section.

Note

57. Jennifer Dubois, A Partial History of Lost Causes, (New York: Dial Press, 2012), Kindle edition, chap. 6.

Bibliographic
Entry

DuBois, Jennifer. A Partial History of Lost Causes. New York: Dial Press, 2012. Kindle edition. 

 

Note

10. Peter Heller, The Dog Stars, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012), PDF e-book, chap. 5. 

Bibliographic
Entry

 Heller, Peter. The Dog Stars. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 2012. PDF e-book.

Facebook and Twitter

CMOS 16 states that original web content is best documented as a note; if your document has no notes, then you could include the information in the bibliography. CMOS 16 provides no guidance on citing Facebook in a bibliography. Thus, the following bibliography example is put together using basic CMOS 16 rules.

Facebook

See CMOS 16, 14.245 for more information.

Note

17. Bowdoin College’s Facebook page, accessed July 28, 2014, https://www.facebook.com/Bowdoin.

Bibliographic
Entry

"Bowdoin College's Facebook Page." Facebook.com. Last modified July 25, 2014. https://www.facebook.com/Bowdoin.

Not usually done.

 

Comments on a FB page*

Note

24. Comment on Partners in Health's Facebook page, September 1, 2014 (3:06 p.m.), accessed September 15, 2014, https://www.facebook.com/partnersinhealth.

Bibliographic
Entry 
Not usually done.

 

Twitter

More details from CMOS 16 FAQ

Note

57. Jane Goodall Institute, Twitter post, July 27, 2014, 2:02 p.m., https://twitter.com/JaneGoodallInst.

Bibliographic
Entry
Jane Goodall Institute. Twitter post. July 27, 2014, 2:02 p.m. https://twitter.com/JaneGoodallInst.

*Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. Eighth edition. Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

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