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Chicago-Style Citations: Social & Online Media, Data, Music, and Other Non-Print Materials, 16th ed.: Home

Examples of citations for a variety of non-print materials based on the Notes and Bibliography system of the 16th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style


What is included?

This guide provides examples of citations to a variety of non-print materials appearing on the tabs above. These examples are based on the Notes and Bibliography system of the 16th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style* (henceforth CMOS 16). In addition, we include a few model citations for closely related print materials such as statistical tables published in books.


For materials such as e-mail, blogs, etc. that are included in CMOS 16, we simply provide a convenient summary of the citation recommended by CMOS 16.

However, for materials such as datasets and Creative Commons-licensed materials that are not included in CMOS 16, Bowdoin College Librarians provide our suggested citation in the style of CMOS 16. This suggested citation may in part be based on CMOS 16's support for flexibility and consistency (CMOS 16, 14.70), CMOS 16's use of "books as a model for other sources" (CMOS 16, 14.68) when relevant, as well as recommendations from archives and professional associations. These suggested citation models are not definitive. Please consult your professor in case of doubt.

I can't find what I need!

If you cannot find a model citation that fits your needs, please contact us or ask for assistance at the Reference Desk! Our list of Style and Citation Guides provides information about how to access guides for other citation styles.

Consult your professor

Be sure to consult your professor if you are not sure which citation style to use or if you wish to confirm your interpretation of our suggestions or of CMOS 16 recommendations.


* The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2010). Main Ref Desk Z253 .U69 2010 and online.

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